44 (1535) 31.10.2021 - 06.11.2021

Ⳮ , , 糭Ⳮ-. 15 ,  , 볭 Ⳮ糭 . , ࢭ, , ࢭ (17621835) Ⳮ 볭 , ࢭ 볭 볭, Ⳮ . 糢, 볭 븭.

­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­­, ­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ . , ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ (. “­­”  3, 2008). ˳­ ­ - ’­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ղ ­­, ­­, ­­ ­­­, ­, ­­­ , ­ ­­, ­, ³­ ­­ ­ .

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­ 2022 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ — 260  ­­­ ­­. ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­.

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­­ ­ ­.

­­ ­­­

200  ­­, ­ ­. ­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ “ ­. ­ ­­” (2012 ). ­ ­­­ , ­­­­ ³­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ˳­­ ­­쳳 ­, ­­­ ³­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ˳­ — ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. , ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­: “­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­,  — ­ ­, ­ — ­­­”.

­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ( , ­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­), ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ³­­ (Villoisin). ­­, ­­­ “­ ­ ­­”, ­­­, ­. ­ ­, ­­ ­ — “, ­ ­”, ­­ ­­. ­­糢 ­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ (­­). ­­ 1838 ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ³­ ­­.

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, (1790- ).

­­­ ­­, “­­­­­” ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ 1772–1774 ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ “­­­ ” ­ ­­ ­­­. , 1768 ­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ (­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­), ­­ ­ ­­­ Ţ­ (­­, , ). ­ ­ ­ 1772 ­ (­­, ), 1773 ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ , ­ ­­Ⳣ­ ­­, ­­­ 1773 ­ ­­ ­­, ⸢ ­ ­-­ ­, ­­ ­­­. 1774 ­ ­­­ ­­, 1775 ­­ ­. ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ “­” ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ ­­, ­­ ­… ­­ ­­.

Ţ ­­ ­­

­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­­, ’­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ 1774 , ­ ­ 1775–1776 ­. ­ ­­ﳢ ­ ­­-­­ ­-’ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­ (­­ ­­ ­­­ ­) ­ ­­­ ­­ 1774 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­.

­­ ­ ­­, 1788 ­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­.

ֳ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­.

­-­-­-­­-­­

ϳ­­ 100- ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ .. “­­” ­­. ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­. ’­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ “­­­ ­ ­­­” ­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. 1790- ­, ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­ “­” ­­ ­ ­ (­ ­­, ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­). ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­ , ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­ ­­. , 1792 ­, ­ ­­­ “malarz Rustin” “­­” ­­ ­­ ­, ­ 657, ­ . ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ , ­­­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ “ ­” ­­ﳢ ­­, ­­ ­ .

-­-­

­, , ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­. ­ , ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­.

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( ³-, 1793).

­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ “ ­”. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­­ 1793–1797 ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­. ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­, ճ­­, ­­­, ­­, ­­­ (­­­), ­­­, ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­糢­ ­ ­ ­­ — ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­-­­ ­­.

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.

­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­, ­­, ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ (1792). ­­ ­­ ­­ Rustin, Rusten (-­­ — ­), Rusent (-­­ — ­), Rustim, Rustym Rustem. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­, ­­, ­­­, ’­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ , ­ ­ ­.

­­ ­ ­ 1795-1796 ­. ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­-­­-­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ 4(15) ­­­ 1796 ­.

­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ , ­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ߢ ­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­ (­ ­), ̳­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­, ­ ­ (­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­), ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ (­ ­­­), ­­­­, ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­, ­ .

­­, ­, ­­­ ­­. ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­.

(­ ­)

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