-

39 (1322) 30.09.2017 - 06.10.2017

ϳ - ࢭ
ʔ 볭 Ⳮ, 볭糳 - -. Ⳣ ୳ 볭 - 쳭 , 볭 곭 . 볭 ࢭ , 28 1804 ³ࠗ Ⳮ.

/i/content/pi/cult/658/14600/25.jpg­­ ­­ ­­­

­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ “­­ ­ ­­­”. ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­’­ ­­­­ ­ 1774-, ­ ­­-­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ (­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­) ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ II. ­­­, ­­ ­, ­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­᳢ ­ ­. 25 ­ 1774 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­­ ­­ ­­­-­­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­. 

1785 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­­. 1 ­­ 1787 ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­: “­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ , ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­     ­­ 50 . ­ ­­”. 

­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ( ­ ­ ­ ­-­­ ­) ­糢­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­볢 ­­­. ­. 

­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­­­ “­’­”. ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­: “­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­... ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­. ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ’­­ ­, ­­­ -­ ­ ­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ , ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­”. 

­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ — ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ — ­­ ­­볢­­ ­­ — ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ -. ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­. 

­, ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­. ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­. ­, ­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ — ­­ ­­­. 

­­ , ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­’­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­. ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­  — ­­, ­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­.

­­ ­

­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­. 糢­ ­ ­ ­ ­’­ 1774 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­, ­­­­’, ­­. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ͳ­­­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­ IV ­­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­.

 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. 4 ­­­ 1771 ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ( 1,5 . ­­) ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ﳢ­ ­­ ­. 27 ­­ 1773 ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­᳢ ­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ -­. ­­ ­ ­ 1500 ­­­, ­ ­ ­ ­ 20 ­­ 145 ­­­.

 ­ ­­ ­­­­ 1774 ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­­, ­­­ ,  ­­ ­ ­. ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­   ­­ ­ ­­­ — , ­, ­­ ­. 

­ ­ ­­ ­­­: “ 1762 ­ (…) ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­. ­, ­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­: ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ’­­­ ­ ­; ­­­ ­­ . ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ... ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­, ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­­-­­ ­­-...”

­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ — ­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­.  

­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­.  ­ ­­­, ­­ ­ ­ ­­­, ­ ’­ ­. ­, ­ ­­­    ­­: ­ ­­, ­. ’ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­­ ­­­볢­ — ­ ­­. 

­­­ ’

­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­. 1789 ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­ — ­­­, ’, ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­. ­ . ­­­, ­­­ … ­­. ­­­ , ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ˳­­­ ­­­  — ­ ­­­ ­ ̳­­ ­­­. ­ ­: “…­’­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ˳­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­, ­, ­ ­...” ­ ­ ­­­ “­’­”, ­­ ­­­ ­­: ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­, ­ —  ­­. 

­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­’­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­: ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ — ­ ­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­? ­ ­ ­­ ­ . ­ ­, “’­­ ­­, , ­­­, ­­ ­Ⳣ­ ­ ­!” 

­­­ 糢­ ­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­ — ­­­ ­. ­ ­ ­­: ­ , ­ ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­’, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ˳­­­ ­­.

/i/content/pi/cult/658/14600/26.jpg­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­. ­­, ­­-­­­­ ­­븢­ (­­­) ­­ — ­ ­­ (1778 — 1782), ϸ ­ (1782 — 1796), — ­­ ­-­­­ ­ ­­ (1773 — 1777) ­ ­­ ­ ­­­. ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ “­­”. ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ — , ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ̳­­­ ­­ ­-­­­ — ’ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­: ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­.

ֳ ­ ­­­­ ­­? ­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­, ­ ­­­ . 1803 ­, ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­: 16000 ­ 400000 ­븢, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­! ­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­. ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­, ­­­ , ­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­­.

 ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ II, ­ ­ I ­­­ 1796 ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­. ­ ­­ ­ ­⸢ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­.

­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ( ­ ­­­­), ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, , ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­’. ­ ­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­ — ­ ­, ­­ ­ — ­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­ — ­ ­ ­­­ — ­­ , .

­ , ­­, ­