2 (1545) 07.01.2022 - 15.01.2022

22 i - i- ii , ࢭ ࢭ .

/i/content/pi/cult/885/18731/3.jpg­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­. ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ XVI ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­­-­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ’, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­­ ­ ʳ­­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­㳳 ­­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­­ ­ ­­ ʳ­­­. ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­ ­ ̳­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ XVI ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­.

/i/content/pi/cult/885/18731/4.jpg ­˨­ʲ ­­Dz

­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ 3D-­­­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­ . ­ ­­­ ­­ XVI ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­­­ ­­.

­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ XV ­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­­­ ³­­, — ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ’. ­­ ­­, ­ ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­ ­­. ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­­­ ­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­. ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ — ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­.

­­ ­ ­­

­­⸢ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­­­ ­ ʳ­­, ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­, ­­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­. ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­ — ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­.

­ — ­ ­­­ ­­­­, ­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ XVI — XVI ­­, ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­, ­­­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ — ­­, ­ ­ 1586 ­ ­ ­, ­ ­, ­, ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­­. ­­­, ­, ­­ ­­ ­­ — ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­. ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­­­­­. ­ ­­ ­­­­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­ ­, , ­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ’ ­­, ­­­ ­, ­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­­ ­­­.

­­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­­ — ­­­ ­­­, ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ XV ­­, ­ ­ ­ ³­­. ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­, , ­­­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­, ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­ ­­­, — ­ ­ ­­­ ­­.

­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­ ˳­­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­, — ­­­ ­­­. ­­­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­ ­ XVII — XVIII ­­, ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­ ­ ­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ . ­­­ ­­­ ­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­, ­­ ­ ­ ղ ­­.

­­ ­ ̲­­­

­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­-­­ ­­­­ ­­­­ ­­ ­ ­­­-­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­­ ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­­ ­­, ­­볢­, ­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­. ­ ­­­ ­­, ­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­, ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ 2000- ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­, ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­, ­­糢­ ­­­­ ­­.

­­ ­ ­­­­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ’ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­, ­­糢­ ­­­ ­­, — ­­­ ­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­. ­ ­, ­­­ ­ ­­ ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­­ XVII — XX ­­, ­ ­­ ­­­ ­­­ ­­ ­­­ ­ ­­. ­­ ­­­, ­ ­­­­ ­ ­­, ­­­ ­­­ ­ ­ ­ ­­ ­­ ­­­­ ­ ­­­­ ­.

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